## GUPTA MECHANICAL

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# [Solution] Maximize 1s CodeChef Solution

## Problem

You are given a binary string $S$. You are allowed to perform the following operation at most once:

• Pick some substring of $S$
• Flip all the values in this substring, i.e, convert $0$ to $1$ and vice versa

For example, if $S = 1\underline{00101}011$, you can pick the underlined substring and flip it to obtain $S = 1\underline{11010}011$.

For the substring of $S$ consisting of all the positions from $L$ to $R$, we define a function $f(L, R)$ to be the number of $1$'s in this substring. For example, if $S = 100101011$, then $f(2, 5) = 1$ and $f(4, 9) = 4$ (the respective substrings are $0010$ and $101011$).

If you perform the given operation optimally, find the maximum possible value of

$\sum_{L=1}^N \sum_{R=L}^N f(L, R)$

that can be obtained. Note that the substring flip operation can be performed at most once.

### Input Format

• The first line of input will contain a single integer $T$, denoting the number of test cases.
• Each test case consists of single line of input, containing a binary string $S$.

### Output Format

For each test case, output on a new line the maximum possible value of $\sum_{L=1}^N \sum_{R=L}^N f(L, R)$ that can be obtained.

### Explanation:

Test case $1$: There is no need to apply the operation since everything is already a $1$. The answer is thus the sum of:

• $f(1, 1) = 1$
• $f(1, 2) = 2$
• $f(1, 3) = 3$
• $f(2, 2) = 1$
• $f(2, 3) = 2$
• $f(3, 3) = 1$

which is $10$.

Test case $2$: Flip the entire string to obtain $111$, whose answer has been computed above.

Test case $3$: Flip the entire string to obtain $11011$. The sum of $f(L, R)$ across all substrings is now $26$, which is the maximum possible.